Hijab

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If you are a Muslim living in this region then chances are you’ve heard of the online petition that wants Muslim women to be allowed to wear the hijab at workplaces in Singapore. A hijab is basically a headscarf worn by Muslim women when in public. In mainstream interpretations of the faith wearing it is a religious duty, and non-compliance is often considered a sin.

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If you haven’t seen or heard about the petition you can click here to read more about it and see how many signatures it has garnered. At the time of me writing this, it’s had over 12,000 signatures. It hopes to get 20,000.

For many Muslim women, not just at the workplace but in secondary schools and colleges, staying employed (or in the case of schools which require strict adherence to a common uniform, educated) means having to commit the sin of taking the hijab off. Given how people are increasingly religious these days, especially in the Muslim community, the choice can be particularly tough.

The hijab is usually allowed in many workplaces, but for women who work as nurses, like my wife, or in frontline operations where a certain uniform needs to be worn, it’s commonly accepted that wearing the hijab will get you more than a telling off from your superior.

The existing policy on the hijab, stoutly defended by many in the ruling PAP, has led to a politicisation of the issue. Muslims in Singapore look it as yet another instance where their rights have been trampled upon, along with the government’s pressuring and meddling of local madrasahs, considered by mainstream Singaporeans as unhealthy with respect to multi-cultural integration and nation building.

It’s no surprise how this one simple issue can get so many ordinary Singaporean Muslims riled up. After all, in countries like Australia and the UK, Muslim women are granted the freedom to wear the hijab, even if they work as nurses or policewomen. It’s funny how a predominantly Western, secular country with a relatively new Muslim minority, made up mostly of immigrants, can be so quick in laying down laws which allow such modifications to uniform, while here in Singapore nothing’s changed in the last 30 years of lobbying.

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What makes the current policy on banning hijabs at the workplace and school even more annoying/baffling is Article 152 of Singapore’s constitution, which upholds that Malays, considered the indigenous people of Singapore and of whom more than 99% are Muslim, shall be given special treatment. This includes the government having to “protect, safeguard, support, foster and promote their political, educational, RELIGIOUS, economic, social and cultural interests…”

As if that isn’t clear enough, Article 153 states that “The Legislature shall by law make provision for regulating Muslim religious affairs and for constituting a Council to advise the President in matters relating to the Muslim religion.”

It would appear that the law of the land appears favourable to Muslims wanting to retain their faith. So why is the situation on the ground vastly different? There are many reasons, but I’ve narrowed them down to three, which I’ll elaborate here.

One, Singapore is a young country with a tumultuous past that involves clashes of the racial and religious kind. In 1964, several people were killed and many others injured when Chinese and Malay groups fought with each other. A decade earlier similar scenes of violence and destruction were thrust into the realm of public consciousness when a court ruled that a girl that had been raised by Muslims was to be returned to her biological parents, who were Catholic.

These riots are repeatedly told ad nauseum every year during Racial Harmony Day, celebrated annually in Singapore on 21st July, the day of the 1964 riots. They are given different perspectives, by educators, journalists and politicians, but ultimately they remind Singaporeans that race and religion are touchy topics that should never be broached publicly.

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What this usually means is simple. To speak about wanting certain rights pertaining to one’s faith is akin to being socially irresponsible and unnecessarily demanding, amidst an environment that preaches fairness to all, regardless of race, language or religion. In such a climate, one is expected to rein in one’s individual identity, and religious practice, for the continued harmony of the masses.

Two, there are, unfortunately, more than a few racists and Islamophobes in government. I won’t mention their names here lest I be hauled off to court, but suffice to say one could simply study the speeches and interviews given by some of them, and draw conclusions from there.

Racism on the ground (or in today’s day and age, FB) against Malays, as witnessed recently through the likes of Amy Cheong, leads to a severe backlash. Racism amongst the political elites? More often than not, brushed away as the musings of senility, a hard truth, or my personal favourite, a quote taken out of context.

But here’s how I see it. Racism or Islamophobia in Singapore is subtle. Nobody gets their front porch smashed for being Muslim. Nobody gets beaten up for wearing a burqa or growing a beard. But yearning for spirituality in a country steeped in materialist values is odd, and will attract you more than a few stares. So wanting to wear the hijab, or pray five times a day, or stay away from social events due to the inter-mingling and alcohol is often equated with being backward.

Sure, it might be the same elsewhere. Nobel Peace Prize winner Tawakkul Karman was quizzed on her hijab, seen as antithetical to the values she was promoting in wanting to revolutionise Yemen (see image below). Her reply was top drawer. Couldn’t have said it better myself.

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But in Singapore, with a lack of healthy democratic discourse, such views, especially when they come from the governing elite, can end up invading every sector of society. To put it another way, if there is a lack of diverse opinions on the hijab issue amongst the people in power, why should it be any different for everyday people like you and me?

The third and perhaps the saddest reason (for Muslims like myself at least), is that the Muslims in Singapore, from the leaders to the laymen, are unwilling to push for change. Blame their “huge” government-drawn salary, blame dire economic status, blame mindless consumerism, blame the ruling party, blame the sequence of events that led us to being separated from our big brothers in Malaysia.

At the end of the day, we worry more about our next paycheck, how wonderful our upcoming wedding will be, which city in Korea to visit next, than whether our Muslim sisters will be allowed to wear the hijab or not. Sure, we’ll sign any petition, and believe you me we’ve signed many, but in ten years if things still don’t change, it’s not really going to hurt us that much. Nothing compared to the hurt we get from watching Manchester United under David Moyes these days.

Let’s put it this way. If only one Muslim wrote in to his/her MP and asked that hijabs be allowed in the Singapore workforce, chances are pretty slim that any change will be forthcoming. The letter will probably get trashed and the person will most likely be blacklisted. But what if a thousand people wrote in? Or ten thousand? What if one hundred thousand people wrote to their MP? (The CIA factbook states that 14.9% of people in Singapore are Muslim, which from my rough calculations means 813,585 Mohammedan souls.)

Better yet, what if EVERY Muslim woman who entered the workforce had the courage to confront their employers regarding this? What if they all had fathers like Ustaz Zhulkeflee Haji Ismail, who wrote in tirelessly, asking for his daughter to be given the permission to wear the hijab during her stints at the hospital? Would the powers that be still be able to sweep this under the proverbial rug?

There’s no need for collective action or a mass rallying of Muslims. All that’s needed is for each and every Muslim to be fearless and firm in their pursuit of what’s right. Unfortunately, it is not only a state of indifference and ignorance prevalent in the community that practising Muslims have to battle (jihad?) with today. More and more Muslims are wont to belittle these efforts at redress. They are easy to identify, these against-the-grain Muslim “intellectuals”. Usually successful in the worldly sense, they make no secret of their desire to be even more successful (read: make more money). These people are the ones often praised to high heavens when the government needs examples of how far the Malay community has progressed.

In return, they attempt to rationalise us, the irrational Other. Their language is one of accommodation, of compromise. We mustn’t be too emotional, they tell us. We already have much to be thankful for as Muslims in a non-Muslim country, they remind us. It’s not difficult to see why they say what they say. Some of them are (paid) supporters of the government, and as much as they would like to be seen as enlightened, many in the community just think of them as political and career opportunists.

Much more can be written about the hijab in Singapore, but I’ll end here. It is my sincere wish that this matter be resolved as soon as possible, but like all other religious matters, I doubt it will. A Minister or Muslim MP will probably be quoted as saying Singapore is “not ready” for such change, which is really doublespeak for “we don’t have the time nor inclination to make things better for you Muslims.”

A MUIS-sanctioned religious scholar will exhort us to be grateful for what we have, and perhaps drop a Quranic verse or two on the extent of Allah’s Mercy (when judging women who’ve had to take off their hijab in the name of gainful employment.)

Like those before me, I’m beginning to think my future lies in another country, perhaps not too far away like New Zealand or Australia. The average Singaporean will perhaps caution me of the racism found there. From the frying pan to the fire, they’ll say.

8903504I think I’ll take my chances.

Post script: The woman who started the petition (Syafiqah K.) has since closed it. She has yet to identify herself, and nobody knows why the petition was closed (well, except for her of course, and perhaps the people who rule this country).

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Courage Under Fire

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I’ve discovered the ultimate recipe for chaos. Take a social media platform that allows people to say whatever they want. Throw it into a country with a long history of forced political correctness. Add bigots. Watch.

Here’s a short slice of history, for those who still think it’s worthy to know one’s past to understand the present. In 1933, Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany, which was then suffering from high unemployment and inflation. He had risen to power by campaigning against the Jews and other minorities, blaming them for the economic woes of the nation. We all know what happened next.

Fast forward to present times. The world’s economy is battered and bruised, thanks in part to the immensely flawed capitalist monetary system we’ve put up with. But the same people who control the money that flows in and out of our pockets are also the ones who decide what we see and hear on television. They own the media conglomerates that decide what to ‘feed’ us, influencing millions of lemmings the world over and how they behave and react to present-day realities.

In the case of presenting Islam, this is what they have taught us: You are a ‘good’ Moslem if you are prepared to view your religion critically, if you are willing to discard archaic beliefs and rituals that have little benefit in today’s modern society, if you accept without the question the need for democracy and human rights and free speech, and price your oil rationally, thus meeting the world’s energy needs. Conversely, you are bad/evil/extremist if you veer towards the opposite, if you uphold religious beliefs and rituals, if you are wary of western notions of progress, if you view the sale of oil as an imperialistic attempt by the Occident to further its material greed.

This dichotomy is viewed through the lenses of integration in modern-day Singapore, a country that prides itself on the notion that, unlike its northern neighbour Malaysia, everyone must be treated equally, regardless of race or religion. But the notion is flawed, because of the tacit understanding that races and religions take a backseat in secular Singapore. To integrate, Muslims in Singapore are expected to water down their religiosity, to be “less strict”, including not pushing for their rights: to modify existing school uniforms to meet modesty requirements, to keep madrasahs out of government interference, to voice their concerns on the treatment of Palestinians at the hands of Israel.

The late Edward Said wrote in 1980 that “most of the Third World is now fully bathed in US-produced TV shows, and is wholly dependent upon a tiny group of news agencies that transmit news back to the Third World, even in the large numbers of cases where the news is about the Third World. From being the source of news, the Third World generally, and Islamic countries in particular, have become consumers of news. For the first time in history (for the first time, that is, on such a scale) the Islamic world may be said to be learning about itself in part by means of images, histories and information manufactured in the West.”

Essentially this means that we now live in an era where Islam, its adherents and practices have become open for discussion and subject to loose coffee-shop talk. Unfortunately, it is not bona fide Muslims who are being asked to explain what the religion entails, but non-Muslim commentators and newsmakers, or the ever-vocal Muslim dissident, willing and happy to play up the divide between the accepted majority and the oppressed fringe.

Perhaps this explains the recent spate of Islamophobia we’ve been seeing in Singapore and the world around us. Today, we don’t need a megalomaniac dictator to point fingers at a particular group of people. The western media, in cahoots with the world’s governments, connects the dots for us. For all their talk about it not being anti-Islam, it is the Muslims who are routinely being bombed and killed. It is the Muslims who are being locked up on suspicion of terrorism. It is the Muslims who are left to face comments such as “I would say today, we can integrate all religions and races except Islam.” I guess that’s why Messrs. Neo and Ratnam spouted their ‘hate speech’. They probably thought, “If it’s okay for the West and LKY, why shouldn’t it be okay for us?”

In the case of Jason Neo, the ruling People’s Action Party was quick to condemn the comments, through youth wing heads Zaqy Mohamad and Teo Ser Luck. However, their apology was cleverly worded, with Huda Kindergarten made to appear the offended party, as if implicitly telling other Muslims they had little business wanting to milk the incident for political mileage.

The whole incident has also, inadvertently, divided the opposition camp further. While many were angry at Neo’s comments, especially given his status as member of the PAP’s youth wing, a significant number did not agree that he should be punished, afraid that doing so would only entrench restrictions on freedom of speech.

Also, several online comments and a TOC article appear to suggest that we should not be asked to identify with our race and religion, as if all public discourse on identity markers should be swallowed into vacuum, a means of preventing further seditious incidents from happening. For such people, I am reminded of Slavoj Zizek’s idea of how we live in an era of “decaf reality” – wanting something, without the defining ingredient that makes that something, an idea that, ironically, would give rise to LKY-styled integration.

Where then, do we go from here? To begin, I think we need to understand one another better. This cannot any longer be simply empty rhetoric. There needs to be honest talk between people of all faiths, one that does not fall into the trap of superficiality. Having said that, there also needs to be a better understanding of the nature of social media, how it has become very easy to pass remarks that are often too random and impulsive to have required serious reflection. Criticise the comment if you must, but realise the context in which it was made.

Finally, as Muslims, the onus is still on us to show the true face of Islam, preferably doing so without having to utter a single word of defence. Our actions should speak so loudly as to drown out any incitement of hatred and suspicion. We need to be compassionate, civic-minded and selfless, in a world that is quickly spiraling out of control.